Earthquake caused due to the seismic waves created due to sudden release of energy in the Earth’s Lithosphere, strong enough to propel objects and people and wreck destruction across entire cities.
Earthquakes have been a major threat to human lives and the infrastructure as a whole. An earthquake leaves behind a catastrophic result causing severe damage to lives.
Over the years efforts have been made to avoid these catastrophic effects of the earthquake. However, it is not possible to construct a building that is completely earthquake proof. Engineers have found various ways to cut down the effects on seismic waves subjected to the building.
These methods have proved to be efficient to a great extent resulting in preserving numerous valuable lives as well as infrastructure.
However, the earthquake resisting methods applied to the buildings depends on how frequent earthquake takes place in an area. The areas prone to frequent earthquake have to adopt exclusive methods as compared to that of the areas which experience less frequent earthquakes.
New designs and new construction materials have been introduced by engineers. Here are some of the methods to make a building Earthquake resistant.
1. Create a flexible foundation
By lifting the building’s foundation, the ground forces can be resisted. Base isolation involves construction of building on top of flexible pads made of steel, rubber and lead. As the base moves during the earthquake, the isolators vibrate while the structure itself remains steady. This effectively helps to absorb seismic waves and prevent them from traveling through a building.
2. Counter Forces with Damping
In this method shock absorbers are used to reduce the magnitude of shockwaves. This mechanism is also used in cars, which are used as shock absorbers. This is done in two ways; Vibration control devices and pendulum dampers.
Vibration Control Devices
In this method, dampers are placed at each building level between column and beam. These dampers consist of piston heads inside a cylinder filled with silicone oil. On occurrence of earthquake, the building transfers the vibration energy into the pistons, pushed against the oil. Furthermore, this energy is transformed into heat, dissipating the force of the vibrations.
This method is mostly used in skyscrapers. A large ball is suspended with steel cables with a system of hydraulics at the top of the building. The ball acts as a pendulum on the occurrence of the earthquake, which makes the ball to move in the opposite direction to stabilize the direction.
3. Shield Building from Vibrators
Researchers are experimenting with ways buildings can deflect the energy from earthquakes. This method is also known as “seismic invisibility cloak”, which involves creating a cloak of 100 concentric plastic and concrete rings in and burying it at least three feet beneath the foundation of the building.
The seismic waves are redirected to move through the outer rings for easier travel, which as a result, channels the waves away from the building and dissipates into the plates in the ground.
4. Reinforce the Building Structure
Buildings need to redistribute the forces that travel through them during a seismic event. Shear walls, cross braces, diaphragms and moment-resisting frames are central to reinforcing a building. Shear walls efficiently transfers the earthquake forces.
These walls are made of panels, which help a building keep its shape during movement. These walls are supported by a diagonal cross braces. These steel braces have the ability to support compression and tension, which helps to counteract the pressure and push forces back to the foundation.
Moment resisting frames provide more flexibility in a building’s design. It is placed among the joints of the building and allows for the columns and beams to bend while the joints remain rigid.
The generation that destroys the environment is not the generation that pays the price. That is the problem.Wangari Maathai
We all dream of saving the world from deadly aliens and monsters at least once in our life. If you’re anything like me then it’s probably an annual dream whenever we are reminded about the catastrophic events occurring all over the world every year.
The one giant deadly monster that we need to destroy and save our planet from is CLIMATE CHANGE. The problem of climate change is clear and evident to all of us. The constant rise in atmospheric temperature, increasing rate of deforestation, outburst of viruses, crop failures, increase in seawater levels, decrease in ground water table, disappearing of large numbers of birds and many more. It’s an endless list.
Thanks to us that we have created a world full of advancements at the cost of our planet. It is a matter of debate, protests, and social media campaigns every year and it takes no time for people to forget them and return to their routine lives.
The problem of climate change is undoubtedly unavoidable and it is pretty serious.
So how can we really save the world from the catastrophic disasters taking place due to climate change?
If you ask anyone the same question the first thing that will pop into their minds is, “PLANT MORE TREES”. YES, we definitely should plant as many trees as possible but do we know how do trees really help?
Planting more trees.
As we all know trees provide oxygen to all the life that exist on this planet and also absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. But do we know how much oxygen does a tree produce?
Firstly we must understand that the amount of oxygen produced by a tree depends on various factors such as the age of the tree, the species of tree, and the surrounding conditions. On average a 100ft tall tree with 18” diameter can produce 2721.554 kg of oxygen per year which can roughly support 10 lives per year.
A single tree absorbs carbon dioxide at a rate of 48 pounds per year and release enough oxygen back into the atmosphere to support two human beings. But we must also remember that trees themselves absorbs some portion, roughly half of the oxygen they produced for its own processes and release carbon dioxide during night time where there is no sunlight available for photosynthesis.
As it is popularly known that Amazon rain-forest is the earth’s largest biodiversity. The contribution of the Amazon rain -forest to keeping the earth’s atmosphere cool is immense. Similarly the number of trees we plant the more it will be helpful in keeping the atmosphere cooler.
But is that it? Is growing more trees the only way we can save our planet? Yes to a certain extent but not entirely.Read More
Pollution by Materials
We contribute in several ways in increasing the atmospheric temperature of the earth. For example, according to reports of national geographic, all human made materials is now equal weight of all life on earth.
One of the major construction materials is concrete. Concrete is responsible for emitting large amount of heat into the atmosphere due to the exothermic reaction.
There should be advancements and alternatives available for construction to curb this problem up to some extent.
Pollution due to vehicles
The other major reason adding to the atmospheric temperature is the smoke and heat released from the vehicles. As of 2019, the total number of vehicles stood at 295.08 million. Around 60% of the Indian population prefers traveling by road which adds the number of vehicles running on the road and that ultimately results the atmospheric pollution.
There is a way to curb the increasing number of vehicles on road by encouraging the use of public transport. As per reports it is proved that the usage of public transportation system is proved to be helpful in producing lesser pollution or more Eco friendly. But cars are believed to be more comfortable as compared to much public transport. As of 2020, there are close to 300 million cars alone on roads of India.
To solve this, people up to the age of 25 should be encouraged to use public transport as much as possible instead of private vehicles.
Thus advancements must be made in public transport system adding to its comfort and affordability. However difficult it may seem but it is really important to maintain the temperature of the earth.
There should be global tree plantation campaigns with a set target which should be accomplished at any cost. Planting as many trees will help maintain the atmospheric temperature to a great extent.
Despite that, the use of fuel driven vehicles should be minimized and instead one should lean more towards using an electrically operated vehicles that are getting pretty popular these days, cars especially.
It is a joint effort that can bring the desired change necessary for the planet.
Our body needs basically 7 types of nutrients for overall development of the human body. Nutrients such as Carbohydrates, Proteins, Water, Fiber, Vitamins, Minerals, Fats.
If present in sufficient proportions, then are beneficial for the development and growth of the human body, whereas excess of it can cause various health related problems overtime.
Nutrients provide energy to human body.They helps reduce the risk of heart related diseases and other diseases such as diabetes, strokes, and some cancers.
- Reduce high blood pressure.
- Lower high cholesterol
- Improve ability to fight diseases
- Increase energy levels.
Nutrients are not available in our body; they depend largely on the food we consume on daily basis. Also sometimes our body may not absorb the necessary nutrients that are essential for the body which causes deficiency.
The deficiencies caused by the lack of nutrients in the body are;
- Iron deficiency Iron deficiency is the most common and widespread deficiency all over the world, which can lead to anemia. It is a blood disorder that can cause Fatigue, weakness and a variety of other symptoms.
- The iron deficiency can be overcome by having the following items in the daily diet;
- Lean red meat
- Food rich in vitamin C
- Vitamin A deficiency It plays an important role in strengthening the immune system against infectious diseases. The lack of Vitamin A causes Blindness in children. In order to provide higher amount of
- Vitamin A following food having high amount of Vitamin A should be included in your diet;
- Green vegetables
- Reddish- yellow fruits
- Vitamin B1 deficiency Lack of Vitamin B1 can cause
- Weight loss
- Memory loss
- Its deficiency can be overcome by having the following food in your diet
- Vitamin B3 deficiency Its symptoms include diarrhea, dementia and skin disorders. Its deficiency can be overcome by taking necessary supplements.
- Vitamin B 9 deficiency Vitamin B 9 helps in making the Red blood Cells and the DNA in the body. It is important in developing a child’s brain and spinal cord. The Vitamin B 9 can be obtained from the following food items;
- Whole grains
- Leafy green vegetables
- Grain products
During pregnancy women must consume enough Vitamins B9 for a healthy delivery. It also helps prevent birth defects.
- Vitamin B 12 deficiency Vitamin B 12 helps in producing healthy Red blood cells in the body. Vitamin deficiency is common in people who are
- Age above 60 years
- Have diabetes
- Lack intrinsic factor
- A deficiency can cause Anemia.
Symptoms of Vitamin B12 deficiency are
- Fatigue and weakness
- Short breath
- Weight loss
- Pale skin
If the deficiency is not treated at time then it can cause irreversible damage to the nervous system.
But how do I know if I have a nutrient deficiency?
These are the following symptoms that are observed due to nutrients deficiency,
- Pale skin
- Hair loss
- Trouble breathing
- Food cravings
- Lack of concentration
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Fantasy movies are enjoyed by mostly everyone. Everybody loves to watch some magic, magical weird creatures, adventures, different from the reality.
Here we have listed 10 of the best Magical fantasy movies to watch.
1. Oz the Great and Powerful
Oz the Great and Powerful a 2013 film Directed by Sam Rami, starring James franco, Rachel Weisz, Michelle Williams, Mila Kunis, Bill Cobs is a story of a Circus magician who escapes from the circus he works for and Lands in the Land of Oz.
2. Lord of the Rings trilogy
The Lord of the Rings a trilogy film based on the novel written by J.R.R. Tolkein, the films are subtitled The Fellowship of the Ring (2001), The Two Towers (2002) and The Return of the King (2003).
3. Alice through the looking glass (2016)
Alice Through the Looking Glass a 2016 film Directed by James Bobin and Produced by Tim Burton, starring Johnny Depp, Anne Hathaway, Mia Wasikowska, Alan Rickman, Michael sheen, Timothy Spall, Leo Bill, Matt Lucas.
4. The Spiderwick Chronicles (2008)
The Spiderwick Chronicles a 2008 fantasy adventure film based on the book series of the same name by Holly Black and Tony DiTerlizzi Directed by Mark Waters.
5. Fantastic beats and where to find them (2016)
Fantastic Beasts and where to find them a 2016 movie based on the novel by J.K. Rowling. Directed by David Yates.
6. Beauty and the beast (2017)
Beauty and the Beast a 2017 musical romantic fantasy film directed by Bill Condon and screenplay by Stephen Chbosky and Evan Spiliotopoulos.
7. Dr. Dolittle (2020)
Dr. Dolittle a 2020 American fantasy adventure film directed by Stephen Gaghan from a screenplay by Gaghan, Dan Gregor, and Doug Mand, based on a story by Thomas Shepherd.
8. Hugo (2011)
Hugo a 2011 American adventure drama film directed and produced by Martin Scorsese,adapted for the screen by John Logan.
9. Harry Potter Series
Harry Potter a film series based on the novels by author J. K. Rowling and consists of eight fantasy films.
10. The One and Only Ivan (2020)
The One and Only Ivan a 2020 American fantasy film directed by Thea Sharrock from a screenplay written by Mike White, based on the children’s novel of the same name by K. A. Applegate.
With everyday increasing population, land or space available for habitation is becoming scarce.The mighty skyscraper and concreted land as far as one can see. Also about 50% population is slowly moving towards urban cities for dwelling, which is resulting in the declination of available spaces to accommodate every person.Read More
Also with the uneven distribution of population in the various parts of the city, the problem of global climate change is also becoming severe. Along with the rapid increase in population, there is a speedy growth in pollution too resulting in various catastrophes.
The day-to-day uses of various resources and equipment results in the emission of poisonous gases causing climate change. We have witnessed mighty wildfires in the recent times. With the ever increasing atmospheric temperature, there is an increasing need of such structures that affects least to the atmosphere and is Eco-friendly.
Various methods such as Rain water harvesting, usage of solar panels, using natural elements as much as possible such as wind, natural light, rain, vegetation. Currently, In many regions of Australia , New Zealand etc have adopted to a newer housing system known as Tiny house Project.
Large number of people from various states have started adopting to this method of housing which consists of usage of natural light, solar panels, compost toilets, lesser area covered by houses, mobile houses, use of wooden components for construction of houses, preserving rain water, etc. It has helped people to adopt a newer and a more economic as well as Eco-friendly way of living in their desired habitat. On the other hand in countries like India, China, one can witness kilometres of land covered by concrete. A very smaller part of earth is left exposed to the people residing in such countries or cities.
There is a rising need of more sustainable and Eco-friendly structures that would have minimal effects on the environment. Efforts and emphasis have to be made more towards promoting an Eco-friendly mindset before executing any such activities. More emphasis should be laid on minimal waste production, following the concept of Recycle, Reduce and Reuse.
If not, soon the whole of the planet will be covered in concrete and causing various unexpected and unwanted catastrophes in coming years.
“Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less”
A larger part of history has witnessed discrimination, torture, inequality, suppression towards women/females. Yet every time, women have proved their capabilities being better than and equal to that of men. They have proved that, they too deserve an equal space in the society.
They wished to be treated with equal respect. They fought for it and they proved it. Women are not less than men.
We have read and heard about numerous women, who have contributed largely in many different fields.Whether be it, engineering, sciences army, art, etc. Women showed that they are no less than men. Here is one such Women, Marie curie. Also known by the name of Madam Curie.Read More
Madam Curie was born on 7th november, 1876 in warsaw, Poland.
Marie was a top student in secondary school.But she lacked finances for college. yet she managed to receive education from the “Floating University “ of warsaw.
She eventually got her degree in mathematics in Sorbonne in paris. Later she also received a PhD in physics. Madam Curie is responsible for some of the groundbreaking inventions of the time, that are useful till date.
Marie Curie was the first woman to win a Noble Prize, in physics and later in chemistry.
Curie discovered uranium, Polonium, Radium and Thorium. She also coined the term “Radiation”.
The most notable work of Madam Curie is the development of X-RAYS. The X-RAYS are widely used all over the world in detection of fractures in bones and many others.
Marie Curie passed away on 4 July 1934, im savoy, france. She died Aplastic anaemia, a blood disease that often results from exposure to large amounts of radiation.
Her body is also radioactive and was therefore placed in a coffin lined with nearly an inch of lead.
The Rainy season is one of the best time for people who love to travel and explore amazing spots around the world.
We have listed top 5 places, that should be in your travel list for Monsoon.
Top 5 Spots to visit,
- Munnar, kerela
- Coorg, karnataka
- Shillong, meghalaya
- Alleppy, kerela
- Kodikanal, kerela
These places can be best enjoyed during the monsoon season because of it’s natural beauty and natural elements.
The real beauty of these places can be experienced during monsoon.
The deep valleys, the lush green hills, the beautiful and refreshing waterfalls, along with some crispy and tasty street food, on a bike is one of the most delightful moment.
- Munnar, kerela.
Munnar is one of the most beautiful place located in kerela in Western ghats. It is one of the most beautiful spots that become even more gorgeous during the rainy season. If Munnar happens to be on your travel list, then make sure to visit these places without fail.
- Photo point
- Pothamedu view point
- Eravikulum National park
- Attukul waterfalls
- Kundala lake
Munnar is the perfect escape from the burning summer too.
- Coorg, Karnataka.
Coorg, also pooularly known as kodagu is the most popular Hill station in Karnataka. The best time to visit coorg is between October to may. It is one of the largest coffee producers in India.
The must visit spots in coorg are,
- The river Harangi
- Mallalli falls
- Nagarhole National park
- Adventure trail of challenging Kumara Parvatha trek
- Abbey falls
Shillong is the hill station located in the Northeast India, which is also the capital of meghalaya.
The city lies in the centre of the plateau and is surrounded by hills, three of which are revered in Khasi tradition: Lum Sohpetbneng, Lum Diengiei, and Lum Shillong.
The most pleasant time to visit shillong is between June to September, when monsoon months sees from average to heavy rainfalls.
The prominent places to visit in shillong are,
- Mawphalang sacred forest
- Elephant falls
- Mawjymbuin cave
- Umiam lake
- Don Bosco centre for indegineous culture
- Alleppy, kerela.
Alleppy, which is also pooularly known as Alappuzha is famous for its backwater canals, beaches, paddy Fields and lagoons.
It is loacted in the south Indian state of kerela.
The best time to visit Alleppy is between November to February during the winter as the weather is pleasant. It is the perfect time to go on a house boat ride.
It is also pooularly known as “Venice of the East”.
Must visit places in alleppy,
- Alleppy backwaters
- Revi karunakaran museum
- Alappuzha beach
- St. Andrews basilica artunkal
- Sree subramanya swami temple
- Kodaikanal, kerela
Kodaikanal is famous worldwide for its breathtaking natural beauty and serene environment.
Kodaikanal is a city located in dindigul district of Tamil Nadu.
Kodaikanal can best be visited between July and September. Although it can be visited anytime of the year.
Must visit places in kodaikanal are,
- Kodaikanal lake
- Silver Cascade falls
- Bear shola falls
- Pillar rocks
- Green valley view
The concept of home can be different for everyone. For some it can be time spent with family, for some it can be a comfortable living space where they can move freely and do activities, for some it might be a place of leisure, for some the place to wear off all the misery of the work/stress. If differs from people to people. It is different for everyone. Building walls, roofs or floor does not mean to be a home.
To be precise, it can be termed as a house. As it has nothing in it yet. No family, no life, no sound, no movement. It is stationary and lifeless. But what adds life to it, is the people who live in it. It is the way they decorate their houses.Read More
It is the sound of the children; plead of an old man, the old rustic furniture, the beautiful garden filled with flowers and birds. It is the paintings hung on the wall; it is the favorite get-together spot for everyone. It is where most of the parties are held. It is which has witnessed deaths and the birth of new life. It is, that has seen sleepless nights during examinations and never ending quarrels between siblings.
House is a building constructed with no life in it. It is transformed into a home by the people living in it.
Home is where the memories are kept safe. Home is where the heart is. Home is where laughs are shared. Home is where comfort is. Home is the beautiful beginning and the painful ending of the life.
In these constantly shrinking world, as available space is limited it becomes difficult for a huge number of people to have some taste of nature in their house. Nowadays, all we can see is concrete laid everywhere. And who doesn’t like to wake up to the chirping of the birds, beautiful and sweet smelling flowers, and fresh mornings amidst nature. Little touch of nature/greenery adds life to a house. But in the recent world, it is not available to large number of people. At many places it demands high prices, which not everyone can afford.
But having a smaller living space does not mean that one cannot have a touch of nature in their living space. There are different ways to add some green space in your house. Terrace gardening is one the very famous and largely used way of gardening at home. Those with smaller living space can adapt to this method of gardening.Read More
One can possibly grow everything with terrace gardening. One needs to have pots for planting the vegetables and other plants, soil and necessary nutrient for the plants to have good growth.
One must make sure that the terrace or the roof of the house is water proof or there are no leakages. Also, it is important to see that the place of gardening is well lighted and properly ventilated to provide adequate sunlight to the plants.
Water the plants regularly. Do not allow the soil to get dry. Remember, soil is the most important in terrace gardening. Good soil will result in good growth of plants or crops.
In the constantly decreasing available space for greenery in the urban area, terrace gardening can prove to be the most effective method of garden. This way you can always have a green patch in your house. And in the times of inorganically grown vegetables/crops, terrace gardening can provide you fresh and organic vegetables/crops at your home.
Since the outbreak of the pandemic COVID-19, various environmental effects have been registered. There has been a severe decrease in Air pollution, Noise pollution, Water pollution, Land pollution.
The outbreak of corona virus pandemic has led to travel ban across the world. Also, the movement of the vehicles has been banned. Due to the lock-down imposed in many countries, the movement of people has also decreased, which in a way has helped in reducing the plastic waste.Read More
It has been seen that the water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, has become clearer as compared to its previous conditions.
In India, rivers like The Ganges, River Yamuna, etc has become cleaner than it has ever been since past few years. Even various schemes implemented to make the river Ganges clean, has failed to do so. While, the lock-down has proved to be beneficial in helping make river Ganges clean again.
Due to the reduction in movement of vehicles, the sky can be seen more clearly. In china, there has been noted 25% reduction in carbon emission whereas 50% reduction in nitrogen emission.
In many water bodies or rivers, various aquatic animals have returned due to the reduced pollution and lesser human movement. Not only the water bodies, but many animals have taken over the roads on various cities due to no human population or no human movement.
Thus it can be concluded that, a two weeks to one month lock-down should be followed every year to maintain the environmental equilibrium.